This disrupted balance between excitation and inhibition for review see McQuail et al. Modulation of hippocampal acetylcholine release and spontaneous alternation scores by intrahippocampal glucose injections. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Excessive accumulation of ROS has been suggested to be one of the major hallmarks of the aging process Martin et al. Pattern separation deficits associated with increased hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus activity in nondemented older adults. The present cumulative evidence suggests that sleep deprivation and epilepsy during sleep can affect memory, learning, and behavior in children. Statistical significance was considered at p -values less than 0.
Multiple forms of the ketogenic diet KD have been successfully used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy, however its mainstream use as a first-line therapy is still limited. Further investigation into its clinical efficacy as well as the molecular basis of activity is likely to assist in the reversal of any resistance to its implementation. We will also elucidate the role of KD in the interesting relationship between sleep, epilepsy and memory. Currently available evidence also indicates that, under appropriate control, and with further studies investigating any potential long-term side effects, the KD is also a relatively safe intervention, especially when compared to traditional anti-epileptic pharmacotherapeutics. The ketogenic diet KD is a regimen that constitutes a food supply of high-fat, medium-protein, and low-carbohydrates. The KD is so-termed, as maintenance on this diet induces and sustains a ketotic state in the body. The KD has been used to treat various forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. In the clinical setting, patients are usually given 1 g of protein per 1 kg of bodyweight, 5—10 g of carbohydrates, and the remainder of the necessary daily calories is given in the form of fat Kossoff, While many studies have demonstrated KD efficacy in treating epilepsy Cross and Neal, ; Kossoff, ; Maalouf et al. In this review our primary goal is to delineate the scientific and clinical evidence and potential mechanisms of action of the KD, with a special focus on some of its effects on cognitive function in epilepsy. Application of the KD to multiple animal epilepsy models has demonstrated therapeutic effects, e.
Evaluation of sleep habits in children with epilepsy. Adenosine receptor knockout mice show enhanced levels of anxiety Johansson et al. The choice platforms were contained within 7. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Can ketones help rescue brain fuel supply in later life? Respiratory disorders during sleep in patients with epilepsy: effect of ventilatory therapy on EEG interictal epileptiform discharges. Inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol increases open-arm activity in the elevated plus-maze and attenuates shock-probe burying in rats. However, when glucose is not readily available e. Diet Prior to diet administration, rats were randomly assigned to either a high-fat, low-carbohydrate KD